People of Upper and Lower Canada
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From Encyclopdeia of Canadian History -Makers of Canada
Series - by Lawerance J Burpee 1927 Vol 12
Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell (1821-1893)
Educated at McGill University; studied law and called to the bar of Lower
Canada,1847. Acandidate for legislative assembley for Argenteuil, 1857, but defeated by
Sydney Bellingham. Solicitor General for Macdonald-Sicotte ministry 1863-1863. On
death of Macdonald , became Prime Minister June 1891, held this postion untill poor
health compelled him to resign Nov. 1893.
Abbott, Joseph (1789-1863)
Born and educated in England. Came to Canada 1818, Missionary of the Church of
England. Wrote "The Emigrant" containing information about Canada for farmers.
Entered the Army and obtained a captaincy, in the 42nd or 1st Battalion of Royal
Highlanders, 1756. Appointed aide de camp to Major General Amerherst, 1759, with
whom he made campaignsin Canada of that and the following year. Appointed Major of
the 78th or 2nd Highland Battalion 1760 and in September following, employed by
General Amherst in communicating to the Marquis de Vaudreuil the conditions
preparatory to the surrender of Montreal, and in obtaining his signature to them. The 78th
Regiment having been disbanded in 1763, retired on half pay. Again entered active service
1770 as lieutenant-colonel of the 22 Regiment, then serving in America under the
command of Liutenant General Gage, killed in the battle of Bunker Hill June 17th 1775.
Abercromby, James (1706-1781)
Entered the Army and obtained commission as Major 1742; Lieutenant-colonel 1744;
colonel 1746. Sent to America with the 50th Regiment 1756, superseded Shirley and
Webb in command of the Army; and then resigned command to Lord Loudoun. In
1757commanded second brigade against Louisburg. On Loudoun's recall became
Commander in Chief, 1758. Led expedition against Ticonderoga, with Lord Howe as
second in command. On Howe's death , the campaign became a dismal failure for the
british, Abercromby being out generaled at every point by Montcalm. Returned to England
and in 1772 deputy general of Stirling Castle.
Aikins, Sir James Albert Manning (1851- )
Born at Grahamsville Ontario. Son of the following. After taking his M.A. at Toronto
University, he studies law and was called to the bar,1878. QC 1884 President Canadian
Bar Assocation. Represented Canada at the International Congress on Moral Education at
The Hague 1912. Represented Bradon in the House of Commons, 1911-1915 Lieutenant
Governor of Manitoba 1916.
Aikins, James Cox (1824 - 1904)
Educated at Victoria Collage. Elected for Peel County 1854 and sat in Assembly 1861.
Elected Legislative Council 1862 and at Confederation became a member of the Dominion
Senate. Secretary od the Macdonald administration 1869-1873 and afgain 1878-1880.
Minister of inland revenue 1880-1882. Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba 1882 -1888.
Again called to senate 1896.
Aillon, Father de la Roch d'
Recollet missionary. Acted as interpreter between Champlain and Kirk. Negotiation carried
on in Latin. Returned to France 1629.
Albanel, Charles (1616 - 1696)
Came to America from France 1649. Jesuit missionary. Made expeditions from Quebec to
Hudson Bay by way of Saguenay in 1671 - 1672, and again in 1674. Met Radission at
Hudson's Bay Company s post at the mouth of Rupert River. Carried prisoner to England
. Returned to Canada in 1675 and sent to western missions. Died at Sault Ste. Marie.
Algie, Wallace Loyld
Lieutenant in the 20 C.E.F. Won the Victoria Cross by conspicuous bravery and
self-sacrifice on the 11th of Oct 1918 near Cambrai, when with attacking troops which
came under heavey enfilade machine gun fire from neighbouring village.
Studied law at Lincoln's Inn and called to the bar 1791. In November 1798, appointed
judge of the Court of King's Bench for Upper Canada. Elected to Legislative Assembly for
constituency of Durham, Simcoe, and East York 1800, but unseated by Assembly June
1801. Oct 1802 Allcock was appointed chief justice of Upper Canada and a member of the
Executive and Legislative Councils. Died Quebec, February 22nd 1808.
Allen, Ethan (1737 - 1789)
A resourseful but not over scrupulous Vermonter, leader of a guerilla corps, the Green
Mountain Boys. Captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point, May 1775, and seized St Johns.
In September he made a demonstration against Montreal, was captured and sent back to
England in irons. After the peace he was released and returned to Vermont, were he and
his brothers were engaged in a supposed attempt to bring Vermont back to the British
allegiance as a separate colony, the refusal of Congress to give Vermont the status of a
State having embittered Vermonters.
Allen, Isaac (1741 - 1806)
United Empire Loyalist. Served as lieutenant colonel of New Jersey Volunteers.
Emigrated to St John, New Brunswick after the revolution, was a grantee of that town.
Became member of the Executive Council, and a judge of the Supreme Court.
Allen, Sir John Campbell (1817 - 1898)
Born in county of York , New Brunswick. Studied law in Fredericton .....
United Empire Loyalist. Son of Chief Justice Allen of Pennsylvania. Served under Howe
in 1776 and raised Pennsylvania Loyalists which he commanded. He was a grantee of St.
Johns, New Brunswick in 1783 and his American estate was conficated.
Allouez, Claude Jean (1622 - 1689)
Came to Quebec 1657. Left for the West 1665. Reached Lake Superior in ......
Settled in Quebec 1761 and became prominent in maintaining the rights of the civil
authority as opposed to the military. January 1776, appointed deputy secretary, cleck of
the Council and registrar of enrolments, but because of his opposition to the goverment,
Murry refused to admit him to office. In April 1768, Carleton confirmed him in these
appointments, which he ......
Anderson, A. Caulfield.
An officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, employed for many years im the
New Caledonia district, under Dr. McLoughlin. He had charge of Fort Alexandria, on the
Fraser river, and explored a road from Kamloops to the lower Fraser. Bib.: Coats and
Gosnell, Sir James Douglas.
One of the officers assigned by William Lyon Mackenzie to lead the rebels in the projected
attack on Toronto in 183 7. Shot and killed by John Powell, whom he was taking prisoner
to Montgomery's Tavern.
Anderson, David (1814-1885).
Born in London, England. Educated at Edmburgh Academy and at Exeter College, Oxford.
Vice- principal of St. Bees College, Cumberland, 1841-1847, and incumbent of All Saints',
Derby, 1848-1849. Came to the Red River Settlement as bishop of Rupert's Land, 1849.
Remained until 1864, when he returned to England. Subsequently vicar of Clifton and
chancellor of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Bib.: Works: Notes on the Flood; Net in the
Bay. For biog. see, Mockridge, The Bishsops of the Church of England in Canada and
Newfoundland; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray.
Chief Factor Hudson's Bay Company, 1855. That year, under instructions from the
Company, he made an expedition down Great Fish River, or Back River, to the Arctic
Coast. He had been engaged previously in the Company's service on the Pacific coast.
Left a journal of his Arctic expedition; also one on the North West coast. Bib.:
Extracts from James Anderson's Arctic Journals in Royal Geographical Journal, 1857
. See also Bancroft, North-West Coast
Anderson, Samuel (1735-1836).
United Empire Loyalist. Born in New York. Emigrated to Canada at the beginning of
the Revolution. Settled near Cornwall, Upper Canada, in 1783, after having served in the
army under Sir John Johnson. Became judge of a district court, and afterwards of the
Court of Queen's Bench of Upper Canada.Bib.:Sabine, Loyalists.
Jesuit missionary. Came to Canada un 1669, and from that time until 1684 laboured
among the Ottawa Indians and in what is now Wisconsin. He was at Green Bay. 1671-1681
At a later period he was a rnissionary among the tribes on the lower St. Lawrence. Died at
Quebec in 1715. Bib.: Jones,Louis Andre, in U.S. Cath. Hist. Mag., 1889.
Angers, Sir Auguste Real (1838-1919).
Born in Quebec. Studied law, and called to the bar; made Q.C. 1880, and the same year
appointed a puisne judge of the Superior Court of Quebec. Member Legislative Assembly
of Quebec 1874-1879. Solicitor-general Quebec, 1874-1876; attorney-general, 1876-1878.
Lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1887; resigned and called to the Senate, 1892. Minister
of agriculture, 1892-1895; president of the Council, 1896. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men;
Chapais, Angers (Men of the Day).
Anglin, Franci- Alexander (1865- ).
Son of followmg. Called to the bar, 1888; K. C., 1902. Senior judge Ontario High Court, 1904;
puisne judge Supreme Court of Canada, 1909; chiefjustice, 1924.
Anglin, Timothy Warren (1822-1896).
Born in Ireland. Came to St. John, New Brunswick, 1849. Established Weekly Freeman that
year. Elected to New Brunswick Legislature for St. John, 1860, and became a member of
the Smith administration. Defeated for St. John County in 1866. Opposed Confederation.
Elected to the House of Commons, 1867, for Gloucester. Elected Speaker, 1874, and again in
1878. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Hannay, Wilmot, Tilley.
Argus, Richard Bladworth (1831-1922).
Born at Bathgate, near Edinburgh. Came to Canada, 1857, and joined the staff of the Bank of
Montreal. Rose steadily in the service of the bank. and in 1869 became general manager.
In 1879, associated with George Stephen (Lord Mount Stephen), Donald A. Smith
(Lord Strathcona) and James J. Hill, in sccuring possession of the St. Paul and Pacific
Railway, which later became the Great Northern, and laid the foundation of all their fortunes.
President of the Bank of Montreal, 1910; and director of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men, Canadian Who's Who; Skelton, The RailwayBuilders.
Annand, William (1808-1887).
Born in Halifax County. Entered the Nova Scotia Assembly as one of the members for Halifax,
1836; advocated non-sectarian college for Nova Scotia; financial secretary in
Howe's ministry, 1860-1863. An active opponent of Confederation, and an Anti-Confederate
delegate to London in 1866. Formed the first Anti-Confederate or Repeal govermnent in
Nova Scotia, 1867; retired in 1874 to accept the position of immigration agent at London,
where he died. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of
Archibald, Sir Adams George (1814-1892).
Educated at Pictou Academy. Studied law; in 1838 called to the bar of Prince Edward
Island; and to that of Nova Scotia in 1839. Elected to thc Nova Scotia Assembly for Colchester,
1851. Solicitor-general of Nova Scotia, 1856; attorney-general, 1860-1863. Delegate to the
various Conferences leading up to Confederation. Became secretary of state for the
provinces in the first Dominion ministry, 1867. Lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 1870-1872;
and of Nova Scotia, 1873-1883. Knighted, 1885.
Bib.: Expulsion of Acadians (N.S. Hist. Soc., vol. 5). For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.
Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.
Archibald, Sir Edward Mortimer (1810-1884).Born at Truro, Nova Scotia. Son of S. G. W. Archibald (q.v.). Studied law and called to the bar,
1831. The following year he was appointed Registrar of the Supreme Court of Newfoundland,
and Clerk of the Assembly, and became attorney-general in 1841. Advocated reciprocity
with the United States as early as 1849; and took a prominent part in the agitation in
Newfoundland for a complete measure of responsible government, which was finally conceded
in 1855. After a residence of twenty-three years in Newfoundland, he left the Ancient Colony,
and after spendmg two years in Nova Scotia, was appointed in 1857, British Consul at
New York. This diplomatic post, second only in importance to that of ambassador, he
occupied for twenty-six years, through such critical times as those of the War of the
Rebellion, the Fenian Raids, and the Alabama Claims. As Sir Robert Borden has said,
he filled this difficult office with keen foresight and wide vision, and earned not only the
grateful appreciation of his own government, but the esteem and confidence of the government
to which he was accredited. Bib,: Archibald, Life and Letters of Sir Edward Mortimer Archibald .
Archibald, Samuel George William (1777-1846).
Born in Colchester County, Nova Scotia. Studied law and practised in Nova Scotia;
obtained a seat in the Legislature; became Speaker, solicitor-general and afterwards attorney-
general of the province. Chief justice of Prince Edward Island, 1824-1828, remaining
Speaker of the Nova Scotia Assembly and solicitor-general, during the whole term of his
incumbency of the chief-justiceship. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Longworth,
Life of S. G. W. Archibald.
Argall, Sir Samuel.
Born in Walthamstow, England. A type of the founders of British colonial dominion.
Sent, May, 1609, with a small vessel to the new settlement at Jamestown, Va., to trade
and fish. The following year took out Lord Delaware to Jamestown, arriving in time to save
the colony from starvation. In 1612 carried off Pocahontas to the settlement of Jamestown.
Later in the year sent with a vessel of fourteen guns to destroy the French settlements on
the north coast, regarded as infringing on the Virginia patent. Captured Mount Desert,
St. Croix, and Port Royal. On return voyage forced the commandant at New Amsterdam
to recognize English suzerainty by hauling down the Dutch flag and running up the English.
May, 1617, made deputy governor of Virginia. In 1620 served against the Algerine pirates
under Sir Robert Mansell. Knighted in 1622. In 1625 admiral of a squadron cruising after a
hostile Dunkirk fleet, and took some prizes. In October, 1625, with the futile expedition
against Cadiz under Lord Wimbledon. Died, 1626. B;b.: Argall's own narrative;
Parkman, Pioneers of France; Calnek and Savary History of the County of Annapolis.
Argenson, Pierre de Voyer, Vicomte d' (1626-1710).
Succeeded Jean de Lauson as governor of New France, 1658. His governorship marked by
personal quarrels with Laval, and a series of humiliating raids throughout the colony by the
Iroquois. Recalled in 1661. Bib.: Parkman. Old Regime; Douglas, Old France in the New World.
Argyll, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, ninth Duke of (1845-1914).
Married H. R. H. Princess Louise, 1871; succeeded to dukedom, 1900. Represented
Argyllshire in Parliament, 1868-1878. Governor-general of Canada (as Marquis of Lorne),
1878-1883. Founded Royal Society of Canada, 1881. His tenure of office was marked by such
notable events in Canadian history as the adoption of the National Policy, the turning of
the first sod of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the organization of the North-West into
Provisional Districts. Bib.: Works: Memories of Canada and Scotand; Imperial Federation;
Canadian Pictures; Passages from the Past. For biography see Dent, Can. Por.;
Who's Who; Collins Canada under the Administration of Lord Lorne.
Armour, John Douglas (1830 1903).
Educated at Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto; studied law and called to the
oar, 1853; made Q C., 1867; Bencher of the Iaw Society, 1871. Appointed a puisne judge of the
Court of Queen's Bench of Ontario, 1877; raised to the chief justiceship, 1887. Chief-justice of
Ontario and president of the Court of Appeal, 1890. Judge of the Supreme Court of Canada,
1902; in the same year represented Canada on the Alaska Boundary Commission. Bib.:
Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.
Came to Nova Scotia as lieutenant-colonel of General Philipps's regiment. Appointed to the
governor's Council, 1720. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1724; held office
until 1739. Served in America for more than thirty years. Committed suicide, 1739. Bib.:
Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by
Arthur, Sir George (1784-1854).
The last lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1838-1841. He succeeded Sir Francis Bond
Head, and inherited in difficult task of cleaning up after the Rebellion, a task in which he
had only indifferent success.He has been condemned for unnecessary severity to those who
had been mvolved in the Rebellion, or were suspected of disloyalty. Had been successively
govcrnvr of Honduras and Van Diemen's Land previous to his Canadian appointment; and
on leaving Canada appointed to the governorship of Bombay. See Rebellion of 1837
(Upper Canada). Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion;
Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.
Ashburton, Alexander Baring, Baron (1774-1848)
Entered Parliament in 1806. Opposed measures against American commerce . President
of board of trade and master of mint, 1834. Raised to peerage, 1835. Commissioner at
Washington for settlement of boundary dispute, 1812. He was bitterly condemned for sacrificing
the interests of Canada in the treaty, but the fact seems to be that of the territory in dispute
between Maine and New Brunswick, the United States actually got less in 1842 than had been
awarded to her some years before by the King of the Netherlands, and which at the time the
United States Senate had refused to accept. Bib.:Dict. Nat. Biog.
Astor, John Jacob (1763-1848).
Born in Waldorf Germany. Came to America in 1783 and embarked in the fur trade.
Founder of Astor Fur Company. He was closely associated with the Canada
fur trade for some years, had a warehouse in Montreal, and had intimate business and social
relations with the traders of the North West Company. Later, he became a most aggressive and
resourceful rival of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. He founded the
South West Company in 1808, which later bought out the Mackinac Company. The Pacific Fur
Company was also due to his enterprise, and later the American Fur Company. Alexander Ross,
of the North West Company, says of Astor and his ambitious plans: "He was to have annihilated
the South Company, rivalled the North West Company, extinguished the Hudson's Bay
Company, driven the Russians into the Frozen Ocean, and with the resources of China to
have enriched America." Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Cyc. A m. Biog.
Aube-Riviere, Francois Louis de Pourroy de l'.
Appointed bishop of Quebec, Augllst 16th, 1739. Arrived at Quebec, August 12th, 1740,
and died of fever on the twentieth of the same month.
Aubert de Caspe, Philippe (1786-1871).
A French-Canadian writer, whose works are invaluable for the light they throw on the
manners and customs of the French in Canada about the time of the Conquest. Bib.: Works:
Les Anciens Canadiens, translated into English by Mrs. Pennie, and by C. G. D. Roberts;
MeJnoires. P'or biog. see Casgrain, Biographies Canadiennes; Roy, Etude sur "Les Anciens
Canadiens" (R. S. C., 1906).
Aubert de la Chesnaye, Charles (1630-1702).
Born at Arniens. Came to Canada, 1655. Chief Clerk of the Compagnie des Indes
Occidentales, 1665. Engaged in the fur-trade at Cataraqui, 1674. In 1677 obtained a
grant of Ile Dupas. In 1679 made a visit to Paris, and in 1683 back again at Cataraqui.
In 1696 prepared an important memoir on the commerce of the colony. Bib.: Parkman,
Aulneau, Jean-Pierre (1705-1736).
Jesuit missionary, with La Vercndrye in his western explorations. Murdered by Sioux on
an island in the Lake of the Woods, May, 173O. Bib.: Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North
Avaugour, Pierre Dubois, Baron d'.
Governor of New France, 1661-1663, succeeding D'Argenson. He was at variance with the
Jesuits as to the existing liquor laws, which he thought too severe. His is described as the
onlysober description of the great earthquake of 1663. Died 1664. Bib.: Parkman, Old
Aylesworth, Allen Bristol (1854 ).
Born in Newburg, Ontario. Educated at Newburg High School and at the University of
Toronto;studied lavv and called to the bar of Ontario, 1878; practised his profession in
Toronto; appointed one of the British commissioners in connection with the settlement
of the Alaska boundary,1903; elected to the House of Commons, 1905; postmaster-
general and minister of labour, 1905, minister of justice, 1906; British agent in connection
with the Fisheries case before the Hague Tribunal, 1910. Bib.: Morgan, Can Men.
Aylmer, Matthew, Baron (1842- 1923) .
Born in Melbourne, Quebec Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Served with the 7th Royal
Fusiliers in the Mediterranean and Canada. Saw service in the Fenian Raids, 1866 and 1870.
Became adjutant-general of Canada, 1896 Inspector-general of Canadian forces, 1906.
Major-general, 1907 Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.
Aylmer, Matthew Whitworth, Baron (1775-1850).
Entered the army, 1787; served in the West Indies, in Holland, and in the Peninsula
under Wellington. Reached the full rank of general, 1825; and in 1830 became governor-general
of Canada; returned to England. 1835. He was not on very friendly terms with Papineau and his
associates, and was bitterly attacked in the Ninety-'Two Resolutions. Bib.: Morgan Cel. Can.;
Aylwin, Thomas Cushing (1806-1871)
Born in Quebec city . Studied law and called to the bar, 1828. First entered public life,
1841, as member for Portneuf. He was opposed to the union of the provinces. After filling the
office of solicitor-general in two administrations, raised to the bench, 1848. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.
and Last Forty Years.
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Baby, James (1762-1833).
Born at Detroit. Educated at Ouebec Seminary, and in 1784 travelled in Europe. On his return
the following year engaged in the fur trade at Detroit. On the formation of the province of Upper
Canada in 1791, appointed a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. Simcoe made
him lieutenant for the county of Kent and judge of the Court of Common Pleas Commanded the
Ist Regiment of Kent militia in the War of 1812. In 1815 succeeded McGill as inspector-general
of accounts for Upper Canada. Bib.: Daniel, Nos Gloires Nationals; Morgan, Cel. Can.
Baby, Louis Francois George- (1831 1906).
Born in Montreal. Studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1857; made a Q. C.,
1873. Represented Joliette in Dommion House, 1872-1880; minister of inland revenue, 1878-
1880. Appointed puisne judge of Superior Court, 1880; transferred to Queen's Bench, 1881. Bib.:
Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men.
Back, Sir George (1796-1878).
Entered the navy as midshipman in 1808; accompanied Franklin on his Arctic expeditions of
1818, 1819-1822, and 1824-1827. Promoted lieutenant, 1822, and commander, 1827. In 1833-
1835, led an expedition through what is now northern Canada, to the shores of the Arctic, to
ascertain the fate of Captain Ross. The expedition resulted in the exploration of Great Fish River,
which was renamed Back River in honour of the explorer. In 1836 explored the Arctic coast,
between Regent Inlet and Cape Turnagain. Twice granted the gold medal of the Royal
Geographical Society; knighted, 1839; promoted admiral, 1857. Bib.: Works: Narrative of
the ArcticLand Expedition; Narrative of Expedition in H. M. S. Terror.
Badgley, William (1801-1888).
Born in Montreal. Studied law and called to the bar, 1823. Member of the Legislative Assembly,
1847-1855; member of the Executive Council for Lower Canada 1847-1848; appointed attorney-
general. Judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 1855-1863; assistant judge of the Court
of Queen's Bench for Quebec, 1863-1864; puisne judge of the same Court, 1866- 1874. Bib.:
Morgan, Cel. Can.
Born in London about 1584. Made a voyage of discovery to Greenland in 1612. Three years later
sailed as pilot of the Discovery in search of the North-West Passage, traced the coast of
Hudson Strait and the western side of Fox Channel as far as Frozen Strait. He was satisfied as a
result of this voyage of 1615 that the North-West Passage was not to be found by way of
Hudson Bay. In 1616 discovered and made a chart of Smith's Sound and explored the
bay afterwards associated with his name. Killed at the siege of Ormuz, 1622. See also Bylot.
Bib.: Voyages of William Baffin, ed. by Markham.
Bagot, Sir Charles (1781-1843).
Born in England. Educated at Rugby and Oxford; entered Parliament, 1807, becoming under-
secretary for foreign affairs. Minister plenipotentiary to France, 1814; and to the United States,
1815-1820. Privy councillor 1815; ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1820; and to the Hague, 1824.
Governor-general of Canada, 1841-1843. His term of office embraced the very important
period immediately following the Union of Upper and Lower Canada and the adoption of the
principles of responsible government. Died in Kingston soon after retiring from office. Bib.:
Richardson, Eight Years in Canada;
Bain, James (1842-1908).
Born in London, England. Came to Canada with his parents at an early age; educated at the
Toronto Academy and the Toronto Grammar School. Spent some years in London engaged in
the publishing business. Returned to Canada, 1882; appointed chief librarian of Toronto Public
Library, 1883, and built it up into a very strong reference library, particulate rich in Canadian
Baldwin, Robert (1804-1858).
Born and educated at York, he studied law and was called to the bar in 1825. Politically
he was a Moderate Reformer, temperamentally opposed to unconstitutional measures,
the dominant dea in his political programme being the adoption of responsible government.
Entered public life in 1829, when he was elected to represent York in the Assembly of
Upper Canada. Defeated following year. About this time he became closely associated
with Francis Hincks. In 1836 appointed a member of the Executive Council by Sir Francis
Bond Head. Finding his views hopelessly at variance with those of the governor, he resigned
the same year. Baldwin was a consistent reformer, but had no sympathy with the Rebellion
of 1837-1838, or with the extreme views of William Lyon Mackenzie and his associates.
Appointed by Svdenham solicitor-general of Upper Canada, 1840, in the new Legislature of
the United Provinces, and made an executive councillor the following year.
Finding the governor general had no intention of granting self- government, he promptly
resigned. With Hincks he entered into an alliance with the moderate
party in Lower Canada to work for responsible government. In 1842 on a reconstruction of the
government, he became attorney-general for Upper Canada, in what was afterwards known as
the Baldwin-LaFontaine administration.
Among the important measures introduced this year, was his bill to create a
non-sectarian University of Toronto. In 1843 the ministry resigned on the vexed question of
ministerial responsibility, and Baldwin returned for a time to the practice of law in Toronto.
Here he headed an agitation against the governor Metcalfe, which led to the formation
of the Reform Association, whose main plank was the application of the principles of the
constitution of the mother country to Canadian affairs. In 1844 re elected for York, and
moved vote of censure against the governor-general for having violated the principles of the
constitution by governing without a ministry. Two years later he made a political tour of the
western part of Upper Canada, and in the election of 1847 was again elected for York. The
Reform party having swept the country, the second Baldwin-LaFontaine ministry was formed,
which remained in power from 1848 to 1851, when Baldwin finally retired from public life.
Among the measures for which he was mainly responsible was what is know as the
Baldwin Act, which laid the foundation of Ontario's form of municipal government. lt was the
culmination of Baldwin's long fight for responsible government . He also put through the bill
for a non- sectarian university which he had first introduced some years before. Baldwin
was also largely responsible for certain Acts revising the judicial system of Upper Canada.
Although he had opposed the Rebellion, Baldwin supported in the legislature both the
Amnesty Act and the Rebellion Losses Bill. After his retirement from public life, he was
offered the chief justiceship of Common Pleas for Upper Canada, and was also nominated
for a seat on the Legislative Council but failing health compelled him to decline both offers.
Summing up the joint work of Baldwin and his great French-Canadian colleague LaFontaine,
Professor Leacock says: "To find a real basis of political union between French and British
Canada, to substitute for the strife of unreconciled races the fellow-citizenship of two great
people, and set up in the foremost of British colonies an example of self-government that
should prove the lasting basis of empire-this was the completed work by which they had
amply earned the rest of eventide after the day of toil." Bib.: Baldwin, Correspondence
(Toronto Public Library MSS); Davin, Thc Irishman in Canada; Taylor. Brit. Am.; Dent,
Can. Por.; and Last Forty Years; Leacock, Baldwin, LaFontaine, Hincks; Hinicks
Political History of Canada.
Baldwin, William Warren (1775-1844)
Father of Robert Baldwin. Born in Ireland. Came to Canada 1798, and finally settled in
York, now known as Toronto, where he practised medicine. He subsequently opened
a classical school; and later engaged in legal practice. President of the Constitutional
Reform Society, 1836. Represented Norfolk in the Legislature of Upper Canada. Member
of Legislative Council, 1843. Died, 1844. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can.Btog; Dent, Can. Por.
and Last Forty Years; Scadding, Toronto of Old.
Baranof, Alexander Andrevitch (1747-1819)
Governor of Russian America. Had been manager of a glass factory in Irkutsk, Siberia;
grew tired of the monotonous though profitable business and engaged in the fur trade of
eastern Siberia. Appointed governor of the principal Russian trading company in America,
1790. Nine years later, the different companies were united, and Baranof moved his
headquarters irom Kadiak to New Archangel (Sitka), where he built a strong fort, with a
shipyard, foundry, churches and hospitals. Even a library and picture-gallery were
afterwards added to this little outpost of Russian civilization. The Russian-American Fur
Company established trading posts at different points, and came into indirect contact with
the North West Company, and later into more direct relations with thc Hudson's Bay
Company. Eventually the immense territory they occupied, including the long coastal strip
afterwards known as the Panhandle, was sold to the United States, and Canada lost the
coast north of Portland Canal. In 1818 Baranof sailed for home, and died at sea on
the voyage. Bib.: Laut. Vikings of the Pacific.
Barclay, Robert H.
Born in Scotland. Took part in the battle of Trafalgar. Sent to Canada, and commander
of British naval force on Lake Erie in 1813. On September 10th, 1813, defeated by the
American fleet mlder Perry. Subsequently court-martiallcd, but acquitted. His defeat was
due not to his own incapacity but to the fact that he was distinctly inferior in men, guns
and equipment to the Americans, for which conditions not he but his superior officers
were to blame. Died 1837. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Blog.; Lucas, Canadian
War of 1812.
Barclay, Thomas (1753-1830)
Born in New York. A graduate of Columbia College. and studied law under John Jay. In 1777
served in the British army during the American Revolution, and in 1777 became major. At the
end of the war moved to Nova Scotia, entered the House of Assemhly, and for some time
Speaker. Appointed adjutant-general of militia; served as a commissioner under Jay's
Treaty; appointed consul-general at New York for the Northern and Eastern states.
Commissioner under fourth and fifth articles of the Treaty of Ghent. Bib.: Cyc. Am.Biog.;
Barker, William George (1894- )
Went overseas with 1st C.M. Rifles, 1915. Transferred to Royal Air Force same year. Offi-
cially credited with fifty-two enemy machilles. Decorated with Victoria Cross, D.S.O. with one
Bar, Military Cross with two Bars, Italian Silver Medal for Valour, French Croix de Guerre.
Promoted Captain, Major and Lieutenant-Colonel. .Served in France and Italy.
Barkley, Charles William (1759-1832).
Served in the East India Company; sailed on a trading voyage for sea-otter skins to the North
West Coast, 1787. Brought his bride with him, the first white woman on the North-West Coast.
Discovered and named Juan de Fuca Strait the same year, and carried his cargo of furs to
China. In 1792 made another voyage to the North-West Coast, again accompanied by his wife,
who kept interesting journals of both voyages. Died at North Crescent, Hartford. Barkley Sound,
Vancouver Island, discovered and named by him. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.
Barre, Isaac (1726-1802).
Born in Ireland. Served under Wolfe against Rochefort in 1757, and at Quebec in 1759, being at
Wolfe's side when he fell. Entered Parliament, 1761, and a member until 1790. In 1763-1764
adjutant-general and governor of Stirling; in 1764-1768, vice-treasurer of Ireland and a privy
councillor; in 1782, treasurer of the navy. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.
Corporal, 3rd Battalion, C. E. F. Awarded the Victoria Cross for conspicuous bravery at
Passchendaele Ridge, November 6th, 1917. He rushed enemy machine guns single-handed,
killed four of the crew and captured the remainder. Then turned one of the guns on thc
retiring enemy, his action producing far-rcaching results and enabling the advance
to be continued.
Barthe, Joseph Guillaume (1818-1893).
Took part in the Rebellion of 1837-1838. Afterwards became editor of L'Avenir du Canada
rember for Yamaska. in Canadian Assembly, 1811-1844.
Bathurst, Henry, third Earl (1762-1834)
Succeeded to the title.1794. Entered Parliament, 1793; president of the board of trade, 1807;
foreign secretary, 1809; and secretary for war and the colonies, 1812. Directed Britain's colonial
policy during the important administrations of Prevost, Sherbrooke and Dalhousie, in Lower
Canada, and of Brock, Gore and Maitland, in Upper Canada. Lord president of the Council,
1828-1830; one of the original members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1833.
As colonial secretary he was involved in the Clergy Reserves question. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.;
Courts and Cabinets of George I V.
Bayfield, Henry Wolsey (1795-1885)
Born in Hull, England. Entered the navy, 1806. Had a distinguished career in the navy, and
served in Canadian waters, 1814. Subsequently assisted in the survey of the Upper St. Lawrence,
and appointed Admiralty surveyor, 1817. During his tenure of office surveyed Lakes Erie, Huron,
and Superior with their connecting waters, and almost the whole eastern coast of Canada,
including Labrador. Made vice-admiral, 1856, and admiral 1867. Resided for fourteen years in
Quebec, when he removed to Charlottetown. Received the thanks of the Parliament of Canada
for his services, 1854. Died in Charlottetown.
Born in England. Served in the West Indies, at thc Cape, in the East Indies, and in Malta. From
1794 to 1806 aide-de-camp to Sir James Craig, and in 1807 adjutant-general of the forces in
Canada. In the War of 1812 served on the Niagara frontier. Died, 1829. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.;
Edgar, General Brock.
Beauharnois, Charles, Marquis de (1670-1749)
Entered French navy, 1686, and rose to the rank of admiral in 1748. In 1726 appointed
governor of New France, which position he held until 1747. Took a deep interest in Western
exploration, and was a firm friend of La Verendrye. Reputed to be a natural son of Louis XIV.
After his return to France he was made lieutenant-general of naval forces. The first husband of
the Empress Josephine was descended from his family. Bib.: Parkman, Half Century of Conflict
Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle France (R. S. C., 1903).
Beauharnois, Francois de (1665-1746).
Born in France. Became intendant of New France in 1702 and held the position until 1705. In
1707 granted the barony of Beauville. Appointed intendant de l'armee navale, 1706; intendant of
marines, 1710; intendant generale des armees navales, 1739. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la
Nouvelle-France (R. S. C.,1903) .
Beaven, Robert (1836-1920).
Went to British Columbia and engaged in gold-mining. Worked for Confederation and was
secretary of Confederate League. Sat for Victoria in British Columbia Legislature, 1871-1894.
Chief commissioner of lands and works, 1872; minister of finance and agriculture, 1878; premier,
1882, resigned, 1883.Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.
Beaverbrook, Sir Max Aitken, Baron (1879- )
Born in Vaughan, Ontario. Engaged for some years in the promotion of large industrial
organizations in Canada. Went to England and was elected to the Imperial Parliament
for Ashton-under-Lyne, and became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. During the war
was attached to the Canadian Expeditionary Force as "eye-witness" with rank of lieutenant-
colonel, and general representative of the Dominion government with Canadian troops at
the front. Prepared first two volumes of Canada in Flanders, a semi-official Canadian history
of the war. A trustee of the Imperial War Museum, and largely instrumental in securing for
Canada material for both a war museum and a very comprehensive collection of war pictures.
Minister of information in the British government during the war. Created a baronet, 1916,
and a baron 1917.
Bedard, Elzear (1799-1849)
For some years a member of the Assembly of Lower Canada. Moved the celebrated
Ninety-Two Resolutions, 1837. Puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1837;
suspended, but afterwards reinstated. Died, 1849. Bio; Morgan, Cel. Can. Christie,
History of Lower Canada.
Bedard, Pierre Stanislaa (1762-1829)
Educated at the Seminary of Quebec; studied law, and appointed advocate, 1790.
Elected for Northumberland to the first Legislature of Lower Canada, 1792. In 1806,
with a number of other French Canadians in the Assembly, founded Le Canadien, to
represent the views of the popular party. Sir James Craig, the governor, considered
him a dangerons revolutionist. In 1810 the paper was seized, and, although he claimed
liberty of the press, Bedard and his associates were arrested on a charge of treasonable
practices. Released the following year. In 1812 appointed judge of the District Court of
Three Rivers. Retired in 1829 on account of ill health. Bih.: Parent, Pserre
Bedard et Ses Deux Fils in Journal d'Instruction Publique, 1859; Christie,
History of Lower Canada; De Gaspe, Mernoires; Dionne, Pierre Bedard et Ses Fils;
Dianne, Pierra Bedard et Son Temps (R. S. C., 1898).
Beechey, Frederick William (1796-1856)
A lieutenant in Buchan's voyage to Spitzbergen, 1818, and Parry's first voyage to the Arctic.
1819-1820. Sailed as commander of the Blossom by Bering Strait to Point Barrow, 1825-1828,
discovering Arctic coast between lcy Cape and Point Barrow. Became president of the Royal
Geographical Society, 1856. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Bering Strait;
Bib.: White, Place Names, Northern Canada.
Beer, Henry (l835-1886)
Born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Elected to the Assembly, 1870; a member of the
ministry, 1872; Speaker of the Assembly, 1877; mayor of Charlottetown, 1885- 1886.
Begbie, Sir Matthew Baillie (1819-1894).
Born in Edinburgh; educated at Cambridge; and called to the English bar in 1844. Judge of
the colony of British Columbia and judge of the Vice-admiralty Court 1858-1870. He made
a notable joumey to the Upper Fraser in 1859 Established a reputation among the unruly
elements of the Gold Rush for fearlessness and unflinching justice. Chief-justice of British
Columbia, 1870-1894, and also judge of the Admiralty district of British Columbia,
1891-1894. Knighted, 1875. Bib.: Begg, History of British Columbia; Nicolls,
Sir Matthew Baillie Begoie; Coats and Gosnell, Sir James Douglas.
Two historians of this name, or rather these names, have added to our knowledge of the
Canadian West. The first was born in Scotland in 1825, came to Canada and engaged
in journal- ism. In 1869 collector of customs at Fort Garry and accompanied William
McDougall to Red River that year, and in later years acted as immigration commissioner,
first, for Ontario and, later, for British Columbia. Died, 1904. Published in 1894 the
History of British Columbia. The second was born in Quebec in 1840.
In 1867 he became a pioneer in opening up trade between Eastern Canada and Manitoba
Took an active part in the movement to secure representative institutions for the western
colony. In 1878 became sergeant-at-arms of the Manitoba Legislature and from 1878 to
1884 deputy provincial treasurer. Afterwards general immigratiorl agent for the Canadian
Pacific railway. Died, 1898. Author of The Creation of Manitoba · A Story of Saskatchewan;
Ten Years in Winnipeg; History of the North-West. Bib.: For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.
Begin, Louis Nazaire (1840-1925)
Born in Levis, P.Q. Professor of ecclesiastical history Laval University, 1868-1884. Bishop of
Chicoutimi, 1888-1891. Coadjutor to Cardinal Taschereau, 1891- 1898. Archbishop of Quebec,
1898. Cardinal, 1914.
Begon, Michel, Sieur de la Picardiere (1674-1747).
Filled the office of inspector-general of marines in France, 1707-1710. 'In the latter
year appointed intendant of Canada, but did not arrive im Quebec until 1712. Returned to
France, 1726, and for some years acted as intendant of justice in Normandy. Bib.: Roy,
Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).
Belcher, Sir Edward (1799-1877)
Entered thenavy in 1812. From 1836 to 1842 he was engaged in exploring the western
coast of America. Sent out in 1852 as commander of the expedition in search of Sir John
Franklin. Between that year and 1854 Melville Island was examined and all the land north
and north-west of it, imcludimg Prince Patrick Island, on which cairns were found left by
McClintock; also Wellington Channel. A party was sent to relieve McClure. The ships were
abandoned in the ice about longitude 101 . Bib.Last of the Arctic Voyages; Smith,
Belcher, Jonathan (1711-1776)
Second son of Governor Belcher of Massachusetts. Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge,
and in England; called to the English bar. Appointed chiefjustice of Nova Scotia, 1754. President
of the Council of Nova Scotia and administrator of the government, 1760. Chiefly instrumental in
securing for Nova Scotia a representative Assemblg. Bib. Campbell, History of Novia Scotia.
Bell, Alexander Graham- (1847-1922)
Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Educated at Edinburgh University and London University;
came to Canada in 1870. Professor of physiology in Boston University, 1872. Patented his
invention of the telephone, 1876; and also invented the photophone, induction balance, telephone
probe, and graphophone. Made his first experiments with the telephone at Brantford, Ont.
In 1898 appointed regent of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1909-1910 engaged in aeroplane
experiments. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Who
Who, 1910; Addresses before Canadian Club of Ottawa, 1910.
Belleau, Sir Narcisse (1808-1894)
Born in the city of Quebec and educated there. In 1852 a member of the Legislative Council,
and in 1857-1862 Speaker. Mayor of Qnebec, 1860, when King Edward VIII, as Prince of Wales
, visited Canada, and knighted on the occasion. In 1862 appointed minister of agriculture in the
Cartier-Macdonald ministry- and in 1865 premier and receiver-general in a coalition govern-
ment. Appointed lieutenant-governor of the province of Quebec, 1867; resigned in 1873.
Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Bio.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Fotty Years.
Bellew, Edward Donald
Captain, 7th Battalion, C.E.F. Awarded the Victoria Cross for most conspicuous bravery and
devotion to duty. At Keerselaere, in the Ypres Salient, April 24th, 1915, he held up the
enemy's attack with a machine-gun. When his ammunition failed, and the enemy rushed
the position, he smashed his machine-gun with a rifle, and, fighting to the last, was taken prisoner.
Bell-Smith, Frederic Marlett (1846-1923)
Born in London, England. Educated there, and came to Canada, 1866. Founder and
first president of the Canadian Society of Artists, Montreal, 1867; director of Alma College,
1881; member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Artists, 1888; director of the Toronto Art School,
1889-1891. President of the Ontario Society of Artists. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.
Belmont, Francois Vachon de (1645-1732)
Came to Canada from France in 1680, and joined the Seminary of St. Sulpice at Montreal, of
which he was superior, 1698-1732. Left a History of Canada, which was published in the first
series of Historical Documents of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec.
Bering, Vitus (1681-1741)
Born at Horsens, Denmark. Joined the Russian navy in 1704; and in 1725 sent by Peter the Great
to explore the waters east of Kamchatka and examine the American coast. After a three-years'
journey overland, reached the eastern shore of Siberia, built vessels there, and in 1728 followed
the coast north to the Arctic, proving that Asia and America were not united. In 1733 set out again
on the long overland journey, hampered with a huge retinue, and it was not until 1741 that his
ships were ready at Petropaulovsk. Sailed to the east, reached and explored the American coast,
and was wrecked on what was afterwards known as Bering Island, where he died, Decem-
ber 8th, 1741. Bib.: Lauridsen, VitusBering, Muller, Voyages from Asia to America
Berkeley, George Cranfield (1753-1818)
Entered the navy, 1766; companied Cook in survey of coast of Newfoundland and Gulf of St.
Lawrence, 1766-1769; and was on the Victory at Ushant, 1778. In 1786 surveyor-general of
ordnance, 1786; and vice-admiral on the Halifax station, 1805- 1807, during which time
occurred the affair between the Chesapeake and the Leopard. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.
John Beverley (1821- 1896)
Second Son of Sir John B. Robinson; born in Toronto. Educated at Upper Canada
Collage; appointed aide-de-camp to Sir Frances Bond Head; saw active service during the
Rebellion of 1837. Studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada 1844. Served as
alderman in Toronto for six years; elected mayor 1857. Elected to the assembly for one of
the divisons of Toronto 1858 president of the Council in the Macdonald-Cartier
administration, 1862. Elected to the House of Commmons for Algoma 1872 and for
Toronto West 1878 Lieutenant-governor of Ontario 1880-1887.
Bernard, Hewitt (1825-1893).
Entered the Canadian public service, 1858; deputy minister of
justice, 1867; resigned, 1876 Acted as confidential secretary to
the Quebec Conference on Confederation, 1866 and as secretary
to the Confederation delegates in London the following
year. In 1872 created I. C.; and the same year made C. M. G. In
1878 appointed assistant commissioner to France and Spain to nego-
tiate commercial treaties. Aide-de-camp to Lord Monck, 1868, and to
Lord Stanley, 1888. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.
Bernier, Joseph Elzear (1852- ).
Went to sea, and became master of a brigantine at seventeen.
Has given particular study to Arctic exploration, and lectured on
subject in Europe and America. Planned a Canadian Polar Expedition
but Peary's discovery put an end to it.
Has made several voyages to the Arctic Seas on behalf of Canadian
governmcnt, for purposes of exploration and to take formal possession
for the Dominion of Arctic Islands..
Bernieres,Henride (1635 - 1700).
Born in France. Came to Canada with Laval in 1659. Curce of Quebec,
1660 - 1687; and grand-vicar of the bishop of Quebec. First superior
of the Seminary of Quebec, 1663, holding that position till 1688 and
from 1693 to 1697
Berthier, Alexandre (1638 - 1700).
Born in France. Came to Canada in 1665; and in 1666 commandant
at Fort St . Jean. Led expeditions against the Iroquois. In 1672
granted the seigniory of Berthier in Bellechasse County, Quebec.
Bethune, Alexander Neil (1800-1879)
Born in Glengarry, Ontario. In 1823 ordained deacon, and in 1824,
priest. In 1847 archdeacon of York (Toronto), and in 1857 consecrated
coadjutor bishop of Toronto; succeeded to the bishopric on the death
of Bishop Strachan. Bib.: Rosc, Cyc. Ca7n Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog.;
Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and
Bethune, John (1751-1815).
Born in Scotland. Emigrated in his early years to South Carolina,
and was chaplain of the loyal militia. Taken prisoner at the battle of
Cross Creek, in 1776. Afterwards chaplain to 84th Regiment.
In 1786 resided in Montrcal; minister of the Presbyterian Church
there; afterwards appointed to a mission in Glengarry. He was
the first Presbyterian minister in Upper Canada. Died at Williamstown
Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Macdoncll, Sketches Illustrating the Early .
Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada.
Biard, Pierre (1565-1622).
Came to Port Royal in 1611, with Masse -the first of their order in
New France. The relations of the Jesuits with Poutrincourt and his son
Biencourt were far from cordial; little or no progress was made with
the conversion of the Micmacs; and in 1613 Biard sailed with Masse
for Mount Desert, with an expedition sent out by Madame de
Guercheville. They had hardly begun the new settlement, when Argall
swooped down, seized their ship, plundered their property, and carried
Biard and some of his companions prisoners to Virginia. Argall brought
the Jesuit back with him to Acadia the same year; the vessel in which
he sailed was carricd out to sea, and after a series of adventures Biard
finally reached France and remained there.
Bib.: Biard, Relation; Carayon, Premiere Mission des Jesuites au
Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Campbell, Pioneer Priests.
Bibaud, Michel (1782-1857).
An early French-Canadian historian. Educated at the College of St.
Bidwell, Marshall Spring (1799 - 1872).
Born in New England. Came to Canada with his father, 1812, and
practised law. In 1824 - 1835 a member of the Upper Canada Assembly,
in 1829 elected Speaker of the House, and re-elected, 1835. One of the
leaders of the popular party of Upper Canada. His outspoken sympathy
with the Rebellion of 1837-1838 resulted in his banishmcnt.
Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Upper Canadian Rebellion; Morgan, Cel.
Can.; Cyc. Am. Bi.og.; Davin, The Irishman in Canada.
Biencourt de Poutrincourt, Charles (1583-1638?)
Son of Jean de Biencourt. Accompanied his father to Port Royal in
1605. Returned to France in I610; made vice-admiral in the seas of
New France, and, somewhat unwillingly, brought with him to Acadia
in 1611 the Jesuits Biard and Masse. While absent from Port Royal,
the fort was attacked and burnt by Argall in 1613. Biencourt partially
rebuilt Port Royal, and was still there in 1618. Returned to France
some time before 1621, and appointed director of the Royal Academy
of Paris which posihon he held up to the time of his death.
Biencourt de Poutrincourt, Jean de, Baron de Saint Just (1557-1615).
Had won distinction as a soldier in the service of France; and
in 1604 sailed with De Monts and Champlain to Acadia. Was so
charmed with Port Royal that he determined to make it his home. De
Monts made him a grant of the lands about Annapolis Basin, which the
king confirmed. Went back to France and brought out his family to
the new settlement. Accompanied Champlain in his exploration of the
Bay of Fundy and the North Atlantic coast. Jesuit missionaries were
sent out to Port Royal, whom Poutrincourt, although a good Roman
Catholic, found far from congenial. Their relations bccame more and
more strained, and when Poutrincourt sailed to France in 1613, the
Jesuits succeeded in having him thrown into prison. Regained his
liberty and returned to Acadia, but found Port Royal in ashes.
Returned to France, and rell in the attack on Mery. Bib.: Parkman,
Old Regime. See also Lescarbot; Champlain; De Monts.
Bienville, Jean Baptirte le Moyne, aieur de (1680 - 1768).
Son of Charles Le Moyne, and brother of Iberville. Joined war
party against Schenectady in 1689. Accompanied Iberville to Hudson
Bay in 1697, and took part in the capture of Fort Nelson and the
defeat of the English fleet. The following year sailed with his
brother to the mouth of the Mississippi, where they laid the
foundations of the colony of Louisiana. Aftcr the death of Iberville,
became governor of tbe colony, and remained there for thirty-five years.
Founded the city of New Orleans, and laboured unceasingly to advance
the interests of Louisiana. Retired to France, and died in Paris.
Bib.: King, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Biemville; Reed,
The First Great Canadian; Margrv,.
Born at Bordeaux, January 30th, 1703; son of Louis-Amable Bigot.
Through his influence at court, obtained several lucrative offices in
New France, which he turned to his own personal advantage. Arrived
at Louisbourg in 1739. After the capture of Louisbourg in 1745,
returned to France, where serious charges of misappropriating
public funds had been brought against him, but his influence at court
was still powerful enough to extrieate him from this scrape, and to
secure him the office of intendant of New France, 1748.
Sailed for Quebec and arrived the same year. Able but unscrupulous,
he elaborated a system of peculation, by which every branch of the
public service was laid under tribute to enrich himself and his creatures,
helping thereby to bring about the final loss of the colony. Returned to
France after the conquest; thrown into the Bastille, and released, only
to be banished. Died in exile about 1775.
Billings, Elkanah (1820-1876).
Born in township of Gloucester, Ontario. Studied law, called to the bar,
1845, and practised in Ottawa. Appointed paleontologist of the Geological
Survey of Canada, 1856, and in the same year established the Canadian
Billopp, Christopher (1737-1827).
Commanded a corps of Loyalists in the American Revolution,
raised in the vicinity of New York. His extensive property was
confiscated. Lord Howe met Franklin, Adams and Rutledge, a
Committee of Congress, at Billopp House, in an attempt to adjust
the difficulties between the mother country and the colonies.
Billopp went to Nova Scotia in 1783. and thence to New
Brunswick, where.he became a member of the Assembly and of the
Council. Died at St. John.
Bishop, William Avery (1894- ).
Educated at the Royal Military College. Went overseas with
7th Canadian Mounted Rifles as lieutenant. Joined Royal Flying Corps,
1915. Promoted captain, 1917; major, 1917; lieutenant-colonel, 1918.
Awarded Military Cross, 1917; D.S.O., 1917; Victoria Cross, 1917;
Bar to D.S.O., 1917; Distinguished Flying Cross, 1918; Legion of
Honour, 1918; Croix de Guerre with Palm, 1918. Officially credited
with seventy-two German machines destroyed. Lectured on aerial
warfare, 1919-1920. Bib.:Winged Warfare.
Bishops of New France. Francois de Laval-Montmorency, 1674-
1688; Jean Baptiste de la Croix-Chevriere de Saint-Vallier, 1688-1727;
Louis Francois de Mornay, 1727-1733; Pierre Herman Dosquet,
1733-1739; Franois Louis Pourroy de L'Auberiviere, 1739-1740;
Henri Marie Dubreuil de Pontbriand, 1741-1760.
Black, John (1817-1879) .
Born in Scotland. Went to the Red River Settlement as legal adviser
to Adam Thom, recorder of Rupert's Land, 1839. Subsequently entered
the service of the Hudson's Bay Company and rose to the position of
chief trader. Went back to Scotland, 1852. Spent some time in Australia,
and returned to the Red River Settlement as recorder of Rupert's Land,
1862. Appointed a delegate to Ottawa to present the views of the settlers
on the taking over of the country by the Dominion government, 1870.
Proceeded to Scotland, where he died. Bib.: Bryce. Manitoba.
Black, John (1818 - 1882).
Born in Scotland. Emigrated to America with his parents and studied
for a time at Delaware Academy at Delhi, New York. Came to Canada
and completed his theological course at Knox College, Toronto.
Ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church and proceeded to
the Red River Settlement, 1851. Remained in charge of the church at
Kildonan until his death.
Bib.: Bryce, John Black: The Apostle of the Red River.
Black, William (1760 - 1834).
Born in England. In 1775 came to Canada and became a Wesleyan
Methodist preacher. Founded the Wesleyan Church in Nova Scotia, and
became general superintendent of British American Wesleyan missions.
Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog; Maclean, WilliamBlack.
Black, William (1770 - 1866).
President of the New Brunswick Asscmbly in 1831. Married a daughter
of Christopher Billopp (q.v.). A member of the Legislative Council of
New Brunswick and of the Executive Council. Resigned, 1843.
Blackader, Hugh W. (1808-1863).
Descended from Loyalist stock. Began to learn the trade of printer
at the age of twelve. Acquired all interest in the Acadian Recorder,
1837, and continued to publish the paper until his death. Closely
identified with the Reform movement and a strong supporter of
Blair Adam Johnston Fergusson (1815-1867).
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Canada, 1848-1857;
appointed to the Legislative Council, 1860; rcceiver-general,
1863; member of the Executive Council and provincial secretary,
1863-1864; president of the Executive Council, 1866. Appointed
president of the Privy Council and member of the first Dominion
Blair, Andrew George (1844-1907).
Born in Fredericton, New
Brunswick. Educated there, and called to the bar, 1866. In 1878
member of the New Brunswick Assembly for York; in 1879 leader of the
opposition; and in 1883 premier of the province. In 1886 resigned and
became minister of railways and canals in the Dominion government,
under Laurier, retiring in 1903. In February, 1904, chairman of the
Railway Commission of Canada, resigning in October of the same year.
Bib.: Morgan, Can. Me@; Rose, Cyc. Can.Biog.; Who's Who, 1906.
Blake, Edward (1833-1912).
Born in Adelaide, Ontario. Educated at Upper Canada College and
University of Toronto. Called to the bar of Ontario, 1859, and became
its acknowledged leader. From 1867 to 1872 a member of the
Legislative Assembly of Ontario; and premier, l 871- 1872. From
1867 to 1891 member of the Dominion House of Commons. In 1873
a member of Alexander Mackenzie's Dominion ministry; in
1875-1877 minister of justice and attorney-general, and
1877-1878 president of the Council. In 1874 he made a brilliant and
startling speech at Elora advocating the federation of the Empire, the
reorganization of the Senate, compulsory voting, extension of the fran-
chise and representation of minorities. In imperial matters his point
of view was that Canada should take her share of the burdens of Empire,
but only when she had a share in moulding the policies of the Empire.
From 1878 to 1887 leader of the Liberal opposition in the House of
Commons. Attacked the plans for the Canadian Pacific Railway as a
ruinous project. Supportcd Costigan's Home Rule proposal in Cana-
dian Parliamcnt. Supported a motion that the death sentence on
Louis Riel should be commuted. He was strongly opposed to the policy
of unrestricted reciprocity with the United States, advocated by
Edward Farrer, and refused to be a candidate in thc election of 1891.
In 1892 went to Ireland and elected member for South Longford in the
British House of Commons; retired, 1907. He was, says O. D. Skelton,
the most complex and baffling character in Canadian political history;
reserved, moody, too independent and original-minded to wear any
party's harness easily, and too self-absorbed for team-play; in Parlia-
ment its most masterful and overwhelming, logician. Sir Wilfrid
I,aurier said of him: "Blake was the most powerful intellectual force
in Canadian political history. He had an extraordinary mental organ-
ination, a grasp that covered the whole and searched out each smallest
detail. He was first and foremost the great advocate, a tremendous
dialectician, analysing and cross analysing to the last point, major
points and minor points, utterly exhaustive. But he was no mere man
of words. He would have proved Canada's most constructive states-
man had he held office. Without any of the lesser arts, he cast a spell
over every man in Parliament."
Blake, William Hume (1809-1870).
Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and emigrated
to Canada in his youth. During the Rebellion of 1837, paymaster of
the Royal Foresters. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1838.
A member of the Legislative Assembly for East York, 1847, and
solicitor-general in the LaFontaine-Baldwin administration,
1848-1849. Appointed to the Bench, 1849. In the debate on the
Rebellion Losses Bill fccling rose so high that John A. Macdonald
sent a challenge to Blake, for which he was promptly taken into
custody by the sergeant-at-arms. Blake was one of the
leading figures in the fight for responsible government in Upper Canada.
In 1850 Chancellor of Upper Canada, retiring March, 1862.
Blanshard, Richard ( 1817 ?- 1894).
Appointed governor of Vancouver Island by Earl Grey; left England,
1849, and reached Victoria in March of the following year by way
of Panama. The Hudson's Bay Company at that time controlled the
situation. The governor, without salary or residence or any staff or
effective support of any kind from the home government, but with
a will of his own, soon got into open antagonism with the Company,
and being powerless to assert his authority, sent in his resignation in
1850, and in 1851 returned to England, leaving a provisional
government consisting of Douglas, Cooper and Tod to carry
on until the intentions of the home government should be known.
Bliss, Daniel (1740-1806).
Born in Concord, Mass. Educated at Harvard University, graduating
in 1774. In 1778 proscribed as a Loyalist, and served with the
British army as commissary. At the end of the war, moved to New
Brunswick; appointed a member of the provincial Council, and later
chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas.
Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick;Sabine,Loyalists.
Bliss, John Murray (1771-1834).
Born in Massachusetts. Son of Daniel. Came to New Brunswick in
1786; called to the bar; and elected to the House of Assembly for the
county of York. Appointed to the bench in 1816; became a member
of the king's Council; and in 1824 administrator of the province for
one year. Subsequently a judge of the Supreme Court of New
Bliss, Jonathan (1742-1822).
Born in Springfield, Mass. Educated
at Harvard University. A member of the General Court of Massa-
chusetts, 1768. Proscribed in 1778. Emigrated to New Brunswick in
1783. In 1785 elected a member of the provincial Legislature and
appointed attorney-general. From 1809 to 1822 chiefjustice. Bib.:
Cyc. Am.Biog.; Sabine,Loyalists.
Blowers, Sampson Salter (1743-1842).
Born in Boston. Imprisoned as a Loyalist, 1778. On his release
went to Halifax. In 1785 became attorney-general and Speaker of
the House of Assembly. In 1797 chief-justice of the Supreme Court.
Ex-President Adams of the United States paid him a visit in 1840.
Bois Hebert, Louis Henri Deschamps, Sieur te (1679-1736).
Married the daughter of Ramezay, governor of Montreal. In command
at Detroit, 1730. and later placed in charge of Indian affairs throughout
Canada. Charles Deschamps de Bois Hebert, born 1727, was governor
of Louisbourg, 1758, and served there throughout the French and
Indian war, 1754-1763. Died after 1774.
Bompas, William Carpenter (1834-1906).
Born in London, England. Ordained deacon, 1859; priest, 1865;
came to Canada latter year and assigned to the Mackenzie River district.
In 1874 consecrated bishop of Athabaska. In 1884 transferred to see
of Mackenzie River, and in 1891 to that of Selkirk. Author of a number
of primers in the Athabaskan and Algonquian languages, as well as in
Bond, William Bennett (1815-1906).
Born in Truro, England. At an erly age went to Newfoundland.
Removed to Quebec, 1840- the same year admitted deacon, and
ordained priest, 1841. For some time engaged as a travelling missionary;
assistant to the rector of St. George's Church, Montreal, 1848; rector,
1862; archdeacon of Hochelaga, 1871; dean of Montreal, 1874.
In 1879 consecrated bishop of Montreal; in 1901 archbishop; and in
1904 primate of all Canada.
Bonne, Louis de.
Born in France, and before coming to Canada served in the regiment
of Conde. At the siege of Quebec, 1759, in command of the Quebec
and Three Rivers militia, and took part in the battle of the Plains
and the battle of Ste. Foy.
Bonnecamps, Joseph Pierre de (1707-1790).
Born in France. Entered the Jesuit order, and came to Canada in
1741, when he was appointed instructor of hydrography at the
Seminary of Quebec. Held that position until the fall of Quebec in
1759. In 1765-1766 laboured among the French refugees on the
islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.
Bonnycastle, Sir Richard Henry (1791-1847).
Born in England. Served in Canada in 1812, and engaged in the
capture of Fort Castine. During thc rebellion of 1837-1838
commanded the engineers in Canada West, and defended Kingston
in 1838. Knighted for distinguished service, 1837. Afterwards
commander of engineers in Newfoundland.
Booth, John Rudolphus (1827-1925).
Born in Shefford County Quebec. Started a small shingle mill at
Ottawa in 1857, and eventually developed it into an enormous industry.
Acquired vast timber limits A man of indomitable courage and
resourcefulness, he met disasters that would have daunted most men
without complaint or loss of spirit. When he needed a railway to carry
his raw material and the products of his mills, he built it himself.
Five hundred miles of his railways were acquired by the Grand Trunk
in 1905. He has been described as "the unconquerable pioneer, the
nation builder the man whose courage, genius and imagination tamed
the wilderness, reared mighty industries, and did more than any other
man of his time to build up his own community."
Brock, Sir Isaac (1769- 1812)
Born on the Island of Guernsey. Entered the army at the age of fifteen.
In 1791 raised an independant company, gazetted captain, and exchanged into the 49th.
Next two years quartered in the West Indies. Returned home on sick leave. Major in
the 49th in 1795, and second lieutenant colonel two years later. Took part in an expedition
to Holland under Sir Ralph Abercromby. Second in command of the Baltic expedtion 1801.
Next year ordered to Canada.
Put down mutiny at Fort George. In command of Fort George 1803 - 1804. In 1811 promoted
to major-general. He himself felt that war with the United States was inevitable. In
December 1811 , in view of a probable American invasion, he sent a plan of campaign to
Provost. Recommended an aggressive policy, the taking of Detroit and Michilimackinac,
and the strengthening of the Navel forces on the great lakes. In January 1812 a long hoped for
permission to return to England for services in Spain arrived, but the situation in America
was now so grave that he felt compelled to refuse.
Carried out scheme of specially trained flank companies in the militia. Brock's position
embarrased in 1812 by failure ogf the home goverment to send either men or money;
also by hostile influences in the Upper Canadian Assembly. He placed Major-General
Shaw in command of the communications between Kingston and Cornwall and himself
took charge of the western district Niagara to Amherst. Realized importance of securing the
support of the Indian tribes. He found himself in need of military supplies of every
kind. Also the lack of specie had to be met by the issue of special bank notes.
June 25 he learned of the declaration of war, and immediately made his headquarters
at Fort George, detailed his little force along the frontier, and sent instructions to capture
Michilimackinac Once at the frontier he met Tecumseh (a great Shawnee chief)
for the first time. Organizing his men into three brigades he decided to attack Detroit,
to which Hull had retreated. August 13 Hull surrendered Detroit and with it the territory
of Michigan. Brock was received in triumph at York (capital of Upper Canada) , but his
success was largely nullified by the ill-advised armistice Provost had arranged
with Dearborn. Brock must sit still while the Americans strengthened their position all
along the frontier. He had at least the satifaction of knowing that the commander
in chief appreciated his "singular judgment, firmness, skill and courage." October 13th
saw his final triumph , at the battle of Queenston Heights. He died as he wished, leading
his men, as Wolfe had done before him, in the hour of Victory.
Brown George (1818 - 1880)
Born at Alloa Scotland. From his father he inherited his
Liberalism and hatred for slavery. Came to America with his
father in 1838, and was associated with him in journalism
in New York. In 1843 removed to Toronto where he established
the Banner, afterwards to be better known as the Globe (now
know as the Globe and Mail) newspaper.
In its columns he began the fight for responsible goverment.
In its first issue he said "The battle for which the Reformers
of Canada will fight is not the battle of a party, but the
battle of constitutional right against the undue interference
of the excutive power." Joined Baldwin and others in the Toronto
Reform Association 1844. Supported Elgin in the matter of the
Rebellion Losses Bill 1849. Defeated Haldimand by William Lyon
Mackenzie. He had supported Baldwin, but Hincks came into power
he took issue with the goverment on the question of secularization
of the clergy reserves. Elected for Kent in 1851, on the platform
that called for the separation of Church and State, secularization
of clergy reserves, establishment of a system of national schools,
the extension of the franchize, and improvement of transportation
Elected for Toronto in 1857. A strong advocate of Confederation.
Urged the aquisition of the North West Territories from the Hudson's
Bay Company. He was appointed to the Senate in 1873, but at this
time decided to retire from public life and devote his energies
to journalism. Shot by George Bennett, an employee of the Globe
who had been discharged for intemperance. He died May 10th 1880.
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Campbell, Sir Alexander (1822- 1892)
Studied law under John A Macdonald, with whom he latered formed a partnership, and
called to the bar of Upper Canada 1843. Elected Lisgislative Council 1858; and speaker
1863. Commissionor of Crown Lands 1864-1866, A delegate to the Charlottetown
Conferance and the Quebec Conferance. Postmaster General in the first Dominion
ministry 1867 - 1873. In 1870 sent to England to confer with Imperial goverment as to the
proposed withdrawal of troops from Canada, the Fenian Raids, and other matters. In 1872
attempted to merge the two rival Canadian Pacific Railway sydicates. Minister of the
Interior 1873; receiver-general general 1878- 1879; postmaster general 1879- 1881,
1885-1887; minister of militia and defence 1880; minister of Justice 1881 - 1885. In 1887
appointed lieutenant governor of Ontario, an office which he retained up to the time of his
Campbell, Sir Archibald (1769-1843)
Born in Scotland. Entered the army 1787. Served throughout the Peninsular War, 1808 -
1814; in 1821 commanded a regiment in India; conducted the Burmese War; and in 1826 -
1829, governor of British Burmah. From 1831 - 1837 Lieutenant governor of New
Brunswick. Came into conflict with the Assembly over questions of Crown lands,
revenues and the Civil List bill. Dissolved the House 1834. Opposed to political reform,
Campbell, Sir Colin (1776 - 1847)
Served in India 1801 - 1804; and afterwards in Denmark and the Peninsula; attached to
Wellington's staff at the battle of Waterloo; promoted major general 1825; lieutentant
governor of Nova Scotia 1834 - 1840. He managed to anaginze the poular party in the
Assembly and his removal was asked for at the instance of Joseph Howe. Governor of
Celon 1839 - 1847.
Campbell, Frederick William
Lieutenant , 1st Battalion C.E.F. Victoria Cross. During the action at Givenchy June 15th
1915, he took two machine guns over the parapet, arrived at the German first line with
one gun, and held his positionthere under heavy rife, machine gun and bomb fire,
notwithstanding the fact that almost the whole of his detachment had been killed or
wounded. Later he moved his gun forward to an exposed position, and firing about one
thousand rounds, succeeded in holding back the enemy's counterattack. Subsequently died
of his wounds.
(gee the stuff movies are made of :})
Campbell, Robert (1808- 1894)
A Perthshire Highlander by birth, he entered the service of Hudson's Bay Company, 1832
and was sent to the Mackenzie River District 1834. For the next eighteen years engaged in
exploring the upper waters of the Liard and Yukon Rivers (Ah what a life :}}and
establishing the fur trade in the region. Built Fort Dease in 1838 and made his way to the
Pacific by way of the Stikine. In 1842 he ascended the north branch of the Liad to Lake
Frances, crossed the divide and reached the headwaters of the Pelly, a trbutary of the
Yukon. In 1843 he reached the juction of the Pelly and the Lewes, and five years later he
built Fort Yukon at the forks, and desended the Yukon to the mouth of the Porcupine. In
1852 made a remarkable journey on snow shoes from Fort Simpson to Crow-wing
Minnesota about three thousand miles. Became a chief factor 1867 and retired from
service of the Company 1871.
Leader ofthe Anti-Confederation party in Novia Scotia. Elected to the House of Commons
for Guysborough in 1867. Afterward supported Confederation.
Campbell, Lord William
Youngest son ofthe fourth Duke of Argle. Governor of Nova Scotia 1766-1773, Last
Royal governor of South Carolina 1775 -1778. Wounded in the attack on Charleston and
died September 1778.
Campbell, Sir William (1758 -1834)
Born in Scotland. Enlisted as a private in a Highland regiment; came to America during the
Revolutionary War; took part in the battle of Yorktow, 1781; after his release determined
to remain in America. Studied law and called to the bar of Nova Scotia; practised his
profession for nineteen years; elected to the Assembly of Cape Vreton; became
attorney-general. Appointed to puisne judgeship in Upper Canada 1811; chief justice 1825
retired 1829 knighted 1829.
Campbell, Major William
Placed by Simcoe in command of the Fort above the rapids of the Miami in 1794. When
General Wayne appeared before the fort with a large force, he refused to abandon it.
Coffin, William Foster (1808 - 1878) Searcher :email@example.com (Ruth Harper)
Born Bath England. Came to Quebec with his father, an army officer, 1813. Returned to
England 1815, and until 1824 was a student at Eton. Came back to Canada 1830. Called
to bar 1835 Took part in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. Joint sheriff of
Montreal 1840 - 1851. Appointed commissioner of ordance lands 1856 and one of the
Intercolonial Railway commissners 1868. Held many important offices under goverment of
Canada and in the militia.
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Haldimand, Sir Frederick (1718 - 1791)
Born in Switerland. Saw service with the Prussian army as a youth, and present at the
battle of Mollwitz. Also with Swiss guards in the Netherlands. He was now a lieutenant-colonel, and in 1754 accepted a commision in the Royal American regiment for services in
America. He commanded the second battalion, stationed at Philadelphia. Sent to Albany
and later to the southern colonies to recruit men. In 1758 he exchanged to the fourth
battalion, and jioned the expeditionagainst Canada under Abercromby, that unfortunate
experdition that end ed so ingloriously. Abercromby having been recalled, Amherst sent
Haldimand the following summmer to rebuild Oswego which Montcalm had destroyed in
1756. Here he was attacked by the French under La Corne de St Luc, but forced them to
In 1760 he accompanied Amherst and the army down the St Lawrence to Montreal, and
withnessed the final capitulation of Canada, he himself being sent in to take possession of
the city. Here he remaided for nearly two years under General Gage. In 1763 succeeded
to Burton as governor of Three Rivers, Burton having been ordered to join his regiment in
the West Indies. The same year he was promoted to colonal and became naturalized as a
British subject.In 1767 he succeeded Bouquet as military commander in Florida, which at
that time extended to the Mississippi. Six years later, with the rank of Major general, he
succeeded Gagge in command at New York. While he was there the famous "tea party"
took place in Boston. The subsequent closing of the port of Boston was against his
prudent advise. In New York he needed all his tact to keep on frienndly terms with
Governor Tryon,as had been the case with Governor Johnstone in Florida. In 1775 he was
recalled ,and given the appointment of inspector general of forces in the West Indies. He
was at the same time raised to rank of general in America and lieutenant general in the
army.,In 1778 he Succeeded Carleton as governor general of Canada.
As his biographer has said, Haldimand missed the dramatic moments in Canadian history
of his period. It was his destiny to play a less romantic part than Wolfe or Carleton, to
defend the hertage they had won, under difficult conditions and with a very inadequate
force. He must keep a watchful eye upon the new republic to the south, without much
faith in the loyalty of the French or the Indian tribes. One of his minor problems was
feeding and housing of several thousand Loyalist refugees; another to keep the peace
between rival military officers in his service. To add to his difficulties he was surrounded
by volunteer spies who misrepresented all his acts to the colonial minister. In addopting the
necessary measures of Civil goverment he had little effective help from his unwieldy
A foe to monoplies of every description, he had every dselfish trader barking at his heals.
Among his practical measures for both war and peace were the strengthening of the
fortifactions at Quebec, and the making of Canals on the upper St Lawrence at Coteau,
and the Cascades; the taking of a census, suppling Canadian timber to the navy
and the founding of the first Canadian Public library at Quebec. In 1784 he returned
to England, having spent six years in Canada, very much to the advantage of the
colony. He died in his beloved Switzerland.
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Robinson, Beverley (1723 - 1792)Searcher :firstname.lastname@example.org (Ruth Harper)
United Empire Loyalist. Son of John Robinson, president of Virgina. Lived in New York
for several years, where he entertained Washington, for whom he felt a warm friendship..
Prince William Henry (William IV) was also his guest there. Entered the army ; took part
as a major, under Wolfe, in the attack on Quebec, 1759. Opposed the measures that led
that led to the separation of the American colonies from the motherland but jioned the
Loyalist when independence was declared; raised Loyal American Regiment, of which he
was a colonel, on several occasions conducted matters on behalf of the Loyalists. At the
end of the war came to New Brunswick, and was a member of the first Council of that
colony. Carried on negotiations with Ethan Allen of Vermont. Spent latter part of his life
in England . Died at Thornbury, near Bath.
Son of the senior Beverley Robinson. United Empire Loyalist. Lieutenant colonel of the
Loyal American Regiment. Graduate of Columbia College New York. At the evacuation
of New York at the end of the war he led the party of Loyalist that founded the town of
Shelburne Nova Scotia. From there he went to New Brunswick , where he became a
member of the Council. Commanded.a regiment raised in New Brunswick at the time of
the French Revolution. Died in 1816 during visit to New York. One son Frederick Phillips,
became auditor general of New Brunswick and another William Henry a member of the
Robinson, Christopher (1763 - 1798)
United Empire Loyalist. Entered William and Mary Collage. When the Revolution broke
out he escaped to New York and obtained a commission in the Loyal American Regiment.
Served in the south and was wounded. At conclusion of the war he went to Nova Scotia
and received a grant of land at Wilmot. Moved to Upper Canada and was made by
Simcoe deputy surveyor general of crown lands. Died in Canada.
Robinson Sir John Beverley (1791 - 1863)
Son of Christopher Robinson (q.v.) Educated at Dr. Strachan's school in Kingston; studied
law and became acting attorney general in 1812, before he had been called to the bar.
Played a distinguished part as a volunteer during the war of 1812. One of the leading
members of the so-called Family Compact, represented York in the Assembly, 1821 and
for several years after that, appointed chief -justice of Upper Canada 1829, and the
following year nominated Speaker of the Excutive Council; upon the union of the
provinces in 1841, retired from political life, but retained his office as chief-justice,
in 1850 created a baronet of the United Kingdom.
Robinson, Peter (1785 - 1838 )
Brother of above Sir JB Robinson. Founded the town of Peterborough, which was named
after him. Brought a large party of emigrants from Ireland, many of whom became
pioneers in the infant town. He served under Sheaffe in the war of 1812 - 1814.
Commissioner of Crown lands in 1827. Entertained Sir John Franklin and Sir John Ross
when they were on their way overland to
Top of Page
Simcoe, John Graves (1752 - 1806)
Born at Cotterstock, in the county of Northumberland, England; son of a naval captain,
John Simcoe, who sailed with Saunders in 1759 but died on his ship the Pembroke before
she reached the St. Lawrence. Educated at Eton and Merton College, Oxford, the son
obtained a commission in the 35 th Regiment in 1771, came out to America and after
serveral years service was put in command of the Queen's Rangers. In 1775 sailed withthe
army from Boston to Halifax, and from there several weekslater to New York. During the
summer of 1776 he took part in the operations on Long Island and in th Jerseys; fought at
Brandywine and was wounded at Chadd's Ford. He took a keen interest in the training of
the Queen's Rangers, and produced a corps of "disciplined enthusiasts in the cause of their
In 1778 he was promoted to lieutenant -colonal and the following year fell into an ambush
and was captured. After being imprisoned for some time, he was released by order of
Washington, and in December rejoined his regiment at Richmond. He and his Rangers
won distincton by their success in beating off a superior force under Butler. With
Cornwallis' surrender came the end of Simcoes's military career. In 1790 he was elected to
represent St. Maw's, Cornwall, in the Imperial parliament; and the following year was
appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada. He sailed for Canada in September, and
in July of the following year reached Niagara or Newark, the little town at the mouth of the
Niagara river, which was to be for a short time the capital of the new province. Here
Simcoe presided over the opening of the first session of the legislature of Upper Canada,
1792. He was no idle figure head, but on the contrary took an active part in the
plans for developing the infant community that in the course of years was to grow into the
great province of Ontario.
The Legislature was not very impressive in those early days.
The Duc de la Rochefoucauld has left an account of the meeting of the fourth
session. The harvest had begun , and out of the seven members of the Legislative Council
only two were present; when Simcoe opened the Assembly only five out of sixteen
attended. " The whole retinue of the governor consisted of a guard of fifty men of the fort.
Dressed in silkhe entered the hall with his hat on his head, attended by his adjutant and two
secretaries." Simcoe's connection with Canada is limited to a comparativly short range of
years; he returned to England in 1796; yet in that short time he did much to lay well and
true the foundations of Upper Canada, to assistthe farming community, to provide trade
between Upper Canada and the Untied States, to provide adequate currency, to build up a
system of education, to suppy means for enforcement of law and order, and care of the
indians. At his little court he entertained from time to time notable visitors as Prince
Edward, the Ducde la Rochefoucauld, and Alexander Mackenzie the explorer.
He made an offical tour throughout hte province, prepared plans for it defence, provided
for the building of Yonge St. and Dundas St.,, and prepared plans for the goverment
buildings at the new provincial capital York, 1796. After his return to England he was
offered but declined the governorship of Lower Canada, was sent to St Domingo to quell
insurrection; place in command at Plymouth; appointed commanderin chief in India; but
sent instead to Portugal on an important diplomatic and military mission. Ill health forced
him to return to England. And he died in Exeter.
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